How the tobacco industry built its relationship with Hollywood
- 1American Lung Association of Sacramento Emigrant-Trails, STARS Project, Sacramento, California, USA;
- 2Institute for Health Policy Studies and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
- Correspondence to: Stanton A Glantz, PhD, Division of Cardiology, Box 0130, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA;
Objective: To describe the development of the relationship between the tobacco industry and the entertainment industry.
Methods: Review of previously secret tobacco industry documents available on the internet.
Results: Both the entertainment and tobacco industries recognised the high value of promotion of tobacco through entertainment media. The 1980s saw undertakings by four tobacco companies, Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds (RJR), American Tobacco Company, and Brown and Williamson to place their products in movies. RJR and Philip Morris also worked to place products on television at the beginning of the decade. Each company hired aggressive product placement firms to represent its interests in Hollywood. These firms placed products and tobacco signage in positive situations that would encourage viewers to use tobacco and kept brands from being used in negative situations. At least one of the companies, RJR, undertook an extensive campaign to hook Hollywood on tobacco by providing free cigarettes to actors on a monthly basis. Efforts were also made to place favourable articles relating to product use by actors in national print media and to encourage professional photographers to take pictures of actors smoking specific brands. The cigar industry started developing connections with the entertainment industry beginning in the 1980s and paid product placements were made in both movies and on television. This effort did not always require money payments from the tobacco industry to the entertainment industry, suggesting that simply looking for cash payoffs may miss other important ties between the tobacco and entertainment industries.
Conclusions: The tobacco industry understood the value of placing and encouraging tobacco use in films, and how to do it. While the industry claims to have ended this practice, smoking in motion pictures increased throughout the 1990s and remains a public health problem.
- AFP, Associated Film Promotions
- AMA, American Medical Association
- ATC, American Tobacco Company
- B&W, Brown and Williamson
- FTC, Federal Trade Commission
- GASP, Massachusetts Group Against Smoke Pollution
- RJR, RJ Reynolds
- STAT, Stop Teenage Addiction to Tobacco
- TUTD, Thumbs Up! Thumbs Down! Project
- UPP, Unique Product Placements
↵* In its present day website (rogersandcowan.com), the company emphasises that “extensive entertainment contacts and resources help us create an interest and `buzz' around products that goes beyond traditional publicity effort”. Regarding product placements, Rogers and Cowan notes that it “presents clients' products to producers, property masters, set decorators and costumers for inclusion in films and television”. The company first contracted with RJR in 1980 to make use of its entertainment industry expertise, but gradually expanded its efforts to a number of other public relations activities.