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Tob Control 14:315-320 doi:10.1136/tc.2005.011932
  • Research paper

Health consequences of smoking 1–4 cigarettes per day

Table 3

 Adjusted relative risk (RR, 95% confidence intervals) of death from all causes, ischaemic heart disease, all cancer, and lung cancer, by number of cigarettes daily recorded at screening, with never smokers as reference. 23521 male and 19201 female participants aged 35–49*

Number of cigarettes smoked daily Test for trend, p
1–4 5–9 10–14 15–19 20–24 25+
*Participants not reporting cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or treatment for hypertension, nor symptoms of angina pectoris and atherosclerosis obliterans.
†Adjusted for age.
‡Adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, physical activity during leisure, body mass index, and height.
Males
All causes
    RR† 1.56 (1.33 to 1.84) 2.03 (1.85 to 2.22) 2.47 (2.29 to 2.65) 2.78 (2.57 to 3.00) 3.35 (3.09 to 3.64) 3.71 (3.34 to 4.11) <0.001
    RR‡ 1.57 (1.33 to 1.85) 1.94 (1.77 to 2.12) 2.36 (2.19 to 2.55) 2.66 (2.46 to 2.88) 3.19 (2.93 to 3.46) 3.42 (3.07 to 3.81) <0.001
Ischaemic heart disease
    RR† 2.65 (2.02 to 3.48) 2.67 (2.24 to 3.17) 3.24 (2.81 to 3.74) 3.89 (3.34 to 4.52) 4.10 (3.49 to 4.82) 4.07 (3.31 to 5.02) <0.001
    RR‡ 2.74 (2.07 to 3.61) 2.47 (2.06 to 2.94) 3.09 (2.67 to 2.58) 3.70 (3.17 to 4.31) 3.75 (3.18 to 4.42) 3.60 (2.91 to 4.46) <0.001
All cancer
    RR† 1.09 (0.79 to 1.50) 1.69 (1.44 to 1.98) 2.14 (1.88 to 2.42) 2.45 (2.14 to 2.81) 3.03 (2.63 to 3.49) 3.57 (2.99 to 4.26) <0.001
    RR‡ 1.08 (0.78 to 1.49) 1.63 (1.38 to 1.92) 2.05 (1.81 to 2.34) 2.37 (2.06 to 2.72) 2.93 (2.54 to 3.38) 3.41 (2.85 to 4.09) <0.001
Lung cancer
    RR† 2.84 (0.96 to 8.45) 11.94 (6.97 to 20.44) 17.98 (10.92 to 29.61) 20.77 (12.52 to 34.47) 33.48 (20.76 to 55.33) 38.64 (22.74 to 65.65) <0.001
    RR‡ 2.79 (0.94 to 8.28) 11.30 (6.59 to 19.39) 16.73 (10.14 to 27.60) 19.36 11.65 to 32.18) 31.69 (19.14 to 52.47) 36.22 (21.23 to 61.81) <0.001
Females
All causes
    RR† 1.44 (1.17 to 1.77) 1.90 (1.70 to 2.13) 2.31 (2.08 to 2.57) 3.01 (2.60 to 3.48) 3.29 (2.71 to 4.00) 2.67 (1.63 to 4.38) <0.001
    RR‡ 1.47 (1.19 to 1.82) 1.90 (1.69 to 2.14) 2.29 (2.01 to 2.56) 2.97 (2.55 to 3.45) 3.14 (2.56 to 3.84) 2.61 (1.59 to 4.28) <0.001
Ischaemic heart disease
    RR† 2.81 (1.67 to 4.72) 3.69 (2.69 to 5.05) 4.03 (2.97 to 5.48) 5.80 (3.92 to 8.57) 4.51 (2.52 to 8.10) 3.89 (0.96 to 15.81) 0.064
    RR‡ 2.94 (1.75 to 4.95) 3.55 (2.57 to 4.89) 3.78 (2.75 to 5.18) 5.28 (3.50 to 7.97) 4.25 (2.35 to 7.68) 3.53 (0.87 to 14.40) 0.114
All cancer
    RR† 1.11 (0.82 to 1.50) 1.44 (1.22 to 1.69) 1.87 (1.61 to 2.16) 2.18 (1.76 to 2.70) 2.73 (2.08 to 3.57) 2.44 (1.26 to 4.72) <0.001
    RR‡ 1.14 (0.84 to 1.55) 1.44 (1.22 to 1.71) 1.85 (1.59 to 2.16) 2.22 (1.79 to 2.76) 2.47 (1.86 to 3.29) 2.43 (1.26 to 4.71) <0.001
Lung cancer
    RR† 5.02 (1.81 to 13.93) 13.06 (7.14 to 23.87) 19.19 (10.76 to 34.21) 30.37 (16.24 to 56.81) 27.68 (13.18 to 58.11) 34.02 (9.77 to 118.44) <0.001
    RR‡ 5.03 (1.81 to 13.98) 11.85 (6.43 to 21.84) 17.62 (9.80 to 31.66) 28.83 15.28 to 54.38) 23.85 (11.10 to 51.25) 31.95 (9.12 to 111.96) <0.001

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