Tob Control 18:132-137 doi:10.1136/tc.2007.024307
  • Research paper

The relationship between local clean indoor air policies and smoking behaviours in Minnesota youth

  1. E G Klein1,
  2. J L Forster2,
  3. D J Erickson2,
  4. L A Lytle2,
  5. B Schillo3
  1. 1
    Health Behavior Health Promotion Division, Ohio State University College of Public Health, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  2. 2
    Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
  3. 3
    ClearWay Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
  1. E G Klein, Health Behavior Health Promotion Division, Ohio State University College of Public Health, 456 Cunz Hall, 1841 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA; eklein{at}
  • Received 15 November 2007
  • Accepted 5 December 2008
  • Published Online First 22 December 2008


Background: While clean indoor air (CIA) policies are intended to reduce exposure to second-hand smoke in the workplace, restrictions in public workplaces have the potential to discourage youth smoking. There is growing evidence from cross-sectional and ecological studies, but limited evidence from longitudinal studies that this is so.

Objective: To evaluate the association between local CIA policies and smoking behaviours among Minnesota youth over time.

Design, setting and subjects: A cohort of 4233 Minnesota youths, ages 11 to 16 at baseline, was interviewed via telephone for 6 years (2000–2006). Individual, family and community level variables were collected from participants every 6 months. A generalised estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between CIA policies and past-month smoking in youth over time. The analysis was controlled for potential confounders at individual and community levels.

Results: There was not significant association between CIA policies and youth smoking behaviours in the multivariate analyses. At the individual level, parental smoking significantly increased the odds of smoking nearly 40% and close friend smoking increased the odds of past-month smoking by nearly 100% for each close friend. Banning smoking in the home was significantly associated with a 12% reduction in the odds of past-month smoking.

Conclusion: After accounting for other community and individual level factors known to be associated with youth smoking, there was no significant association between CIA policies and past-month smoking for youth over time.


  • Competing interests: None.

  • Funding: This work was supported by grants CA86191 from the National Institutes of Health and RC 2006-0047 from ClearWay Minnesota. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of ClearWay Minnesota.

  • Ethics approval: The University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board approved this study.

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