Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation behaviour: a review of tobacco industry documents
- 1Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, California, USA
- 2Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, California, USA
- Correspondence to Stacey J Anderson, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Box 0612, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA 94143-0612, USA;
Contributors The author designed the study; collected, analysed and interpreted the data; drafted the manuscript; and gave final approval for the manuscript to be published.
- Received 17 November 2010
- Accepted 3 February 2011
Objective To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol's relation to smoking cessation behaviour.
Methods A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 15 May to 1 August 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. A final collection of 509 documents relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) perceived sensory and taste rewards of menthol and potential relation to quitting; and (2) motivation to quit among menthol users.
Results Menthol's cooling and anaesthetic effects mask the short-term negative physiological effects of smoking such as throat pain, burning and cough. This provides superficial physical relief as well as psychological assurance against concerns about the health dangers of smoking that would otherwise motivate smokers to quit. Menthol smokers, particularly women, perceive the minty aroma of menthol cigarettes to be more socially acceptable than non-menthol cigarettes.
Discussion Consumers believe menthol's sensory effects equate to health protections and that menthol cigarettes are more socially acceptable than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol in cigarettes may encourage experimenters who find non-mentholated cigarettes too harsh, including young or inexperienced users, to progress to regular smoking rather than quitting, and may lessen the motivation to quit among established menthol smokers. The perception of menthol cigarettes as more socially acceptable lessens the impact of smoking denormalisation on quitting motivation. Menthol makes cigarettes easier and more palatable to smoke and less desirable to quit among established smokers. Fewer smokers quitting contributes to the incidence of tobacco-related diseases.
- smoking cessation
- tobacco industry
- public policy
- qualitative study
- tobacco products
Funding This research was supported by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Contract HHSN261201000035I.
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. This peer-reviewed paper is based on a longer, more detailed (but not peer-reviewed) white paper prepared for the US Food and Drug Administration. The full white paper is available at http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/47w7f4m5 and http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/TobaccoProductsScientificAdvisoryCommittee/UCM228119.pdf for download.
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