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The association of point-of-sale cigarette marketing with cravings to smoke: results from a cross-sectional population-based study
  1. Mohammad Siahpush1,
  2. Raees A Shaikh1,
  3. K Michael Cummings2,
  4. Andrew Hyland3,
  5. Michael Dodd4,
  6. Les Carlson4,
  7. Asia Sikora Kessler1,
  8. Jane Meza1,
  9. Neng Wan5,
  10. Melanie Wakefield6
  1. 1University of Nebraska Medical Center, 984365 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
  2. 2Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
  3. 3Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, New York, USA
  4. 4University of Nebraska—Lincoln, Alexander West, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
  5. 5University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
  6. 6The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Raees A Shaikh, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 984365 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-4365, USA; raees.shaikh{at}unmc.edu

Abstract

Objective To examine the association between recalled exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing (ie, pack displays, advertisements and promotions such as discounts) and reported cravings to smoke while visiting a store.

Methods Data were collected using a telephone survey of a cross-sectional sample of 999 adult smokers in Omaha, Nebraska. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents about noticing (a) pack displays, (b) advertisements and (c) promotions in store in their neighbourhood. A 3-item scale indicating the frequency of experiencing cravings to smoke in locations where cigarettes are sold was created by asking respondents: (1) “feel a craving for a cigarette?” (2) “feel like nothing would be better than smoking a cigarette?” and (3) “feel like all you want is a cigarette?” The association between recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing and cravings was estimated using ordinary least squares linear regression models, controlling for nicotine dependence, gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, education, frequency of visiting stores in one's neighbourhood and method of recruitment into the study.

Results Recalled exposure to POS cigarette displays (p<0.001) and advertisements (p=0.002), but not promotions (p=0.06), was associated with more frequent cravings to smoke.

Conclusions Recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing is associated with cravings to smoke as predicted by laboratory studies on the effects of smoking cues on cigarette craving. Policies that reduce or eliminate POS cigarette marketing could reduce cigarette cravings and might attenuate impulse buying of cigarettes.

  • Advertising and Promotion
  • Prevention
  • Packaging and Labelling

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