Article Text

PDF

Nicotine dependence versus smoking prevalence: comparisons among countries and categories of smokers.
  1. K O Fagerström,
  2. M Kunze,
  3. R Schoberberger,
  4. N Breslau,
  5. J R Hughes,
  6. R D Hurt,
  7. P Puska,
  8. L Ramström,
  9. W Zatoński
  1. Pharmacia Consumer Pharma, Research Laboratories, Helsingborg, Sweden.

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: To collect available international data on nicotine dependence as defined by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence, and to compare levels of dependence among countries and categories of smokers. DATA SOURCES: Published and unpublished studies known to the authors and a search of EMBASE from 1985-1995. STUDY SELECTION: Studies included were those based on a nationally representative sample of a country's population, or a sample of smokers seeking cessation assistance. DATA SYNTHESIS: Smokers who seek help in stopping smoking are much more dependent than the average smoker. Men consistently score higher on dependence than women. Ex-smokers appear to have lower dependence than current smokers. A country with low smoking prevalence, the United States, seems to have smokers with higher dependence scores than countries where smoking is more prevalent (such as Austria and Poland). CONCLUSIONS: Successful tobacco control may result in a higher dependence among the remaining smokers (due to selective quitting by low-dependent smokers). The remaining highly dependent smokers may need more intensive treatment.

    Statistics from Altmetric.com

    Request permissions

    If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.