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Free Nicotine Content and Strategic Marketing of Moist Snuff Tobacco Products in the U.S.: 2000 - 2006
  1. Hillel R Alpert,
  2. Howard Koh,
  3. Gregory N Connolly
  1. Harvard School of Public Health, United States
  1. E-mail: halpert{at}


From 2000 to 2006, moist snuff sales have increased and now account for 71% of the smokeless tobacco market. Previous research has shown that major manufacturers of smokeless tobacco products manipulated free nicotine, the form most readily absorbed, to promote tolerance and addiction. We examined the possibility that company and brand-specific strategies of the major moist snuff manufacturers involve controlling free nicotine content and ease of dosing with products that are designed and targeted to specific groups. This study examines the current total U.S. moist snuff market with product design data from Massachusetts Department of Public Health; moist snuff use from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health; market data from ACNielsen; and magazine advertising expenditures from TNS Media Intelligence. We found that: 1) levels of free nicotine of moist snuff products have increased over time for several major manufacturers; 2) the number and variety of subbrands have increased over time; 3) changes in design, as reflected by variation in free nicotine associated with pH, or tobacco leaf, or both, have enhanced the ease and uniformity of dosing; 4) marketing through price and advertising has increased; and 5) youth use has increased.

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