Objectives: To estimate the gender-specific risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease according to smoking status and time since smoking cessation among former smokers in Japan.
Design: Prospective study.
Setting:140,026 males and 156,810 females aged 40 to 79 years who participated in one of three cohort studies conducted in Japan between 1980 and 1990.
Outcome: The gender-specific hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease mortality were calculated after adjustment for age and cohort.
Results: The age-and cohort-adjusted hazard ratios for current smokers compared with lifelong nonsmokers were 1.51 (95%CI:1.38-1.64) for total cardiovascular diseases, 2.19 (95%CI:1.79-2.67) for coronary heart disease, and 1.24 (95%CI:1.01-1.41) for total stroke in males and were 1.85 (95%CI:1.65-2.06), 2.84 (95%CI:2.24-3.60), and 1.70 (95%CI:1.44-2.01), respectively, in females. The age-and cohort-adjusted hazard ratios for former smokers compared with current smokers according to the time period since smoking cessation decreased by approximately 5 years after smoking cessation and reached the same level as lifelong nonsmokers approximately 10 years after smoking cessation among both males and females.
Conclusions: The present study confirmed the relationships between smoking and mortality from cardiovascular disease in both males and females. Smoking cessation is a crucial preventive measure against death from cardiovascular disease.
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