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Second pack survey on the prevalence of the use of smuggled cigarettes in Tehran, 2015
  1. Gholamreza Heydari1,
  2. Luk Joossens2,
  3. Fahimeh Chamyani3,
  4. Mohammad Reza Masjedi4,
  5. Mohammad B Shadmehr5,
  6. Lida Fadaizadeh6
  1. 1Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  2. 2Foundation against Cancer, Brussels, Belgium
  3. 3Department of Library, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  4. 4Research Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  5. 5Tracheal Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  6. 6Telemedicine Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  1. Correspondence to Dr Gholamreza Heydari, Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19566, Iran; ghrheydari{at}yahoo.com

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Background

One in every 10 cigarettes might be illicit, and these products are more common in low-income than in high-income countries.1 Iran and Iraq are the two main target markets for tobacco smuggling in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.2 A small survey in Tehran, in 2005, showed that 40% of smokers used illicit cigarettes.3 Another study, in 2009, revealed that 20.9% of smokers in Tehran consumed illicit cigarettes.4 Since 2009, new health warnings and holograms have been introduced on cigarette packs in Iran. In addition, the retail of cigarettes has been controlled5 and street selling forbidden.6 ,7 We designed this study to assess trends in the illicit cigarette trade in Tehran.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of 2130 smokers aged 15 years and over who reported …

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