Public understanding of cigarette smoke constituents: three US surveys
- Noel T Brewer1,2,
- Jennifer C Morgan1,
- Sabeeh A Baig1,
- Jennifer R Mendel2,
- Marcella H Boynton1,2,
- Jessica K Pepper1,3,
- M Justin Byron1,2,
- Seth M Noar2,4,
- Robert P Agans5,
- Kurt M Ribisl1,2
- 1Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
- 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
- 3RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
- 4School of Media and Journalism, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
- 5Department of Biostatistics, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
- Correspondence to Dr Noel T Brewer, Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, 325 Rosenau Hall CB7440, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA;
- Received 23 December 2015
- Revised 11 September 2016
- Accepted 23 September 2016
- Published Online First 6 December 2016
Introduction The Tobacco Control Act requires public disclosure of information about toxic constituents in cigarette smoke. To inform these efforts, we studied public understanding of cigarette smoke constituents.
Methods We conducted phone surveys with national probability samples of adolescents (n=1125) and adults (n=5014) and an internet survey with a convenience sample of adults (n=4137), all in the USA. We assessed understanding of cigarette smoke constituents in general and of 24 specific constituents.
Results Respondents commonly and incorrectly believed that harmful chemicals in cigarette smoke mostly originate in additives introduced by cigarette manufacturers (43–72%). Almost all participants had heard that nicotine is in cigarette smoke, and many had also heard about carbon monoxide, ammonia, arsenic and formaldehyde. Less than one-quarter had heard of most other listed constituents being in cigarette smoke. Constituents most likely to discourage respondents from wanting to smoke were ammonia, arsenic, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, lead and uranium. Respondents more often reported being discouraged by constituents that they had heard are in cigarette smoke (all p<0.05). Constituents with names that started with a number or ended in ‘ene’ or ‘ine’ were less likely to discourage people from wanting to smoke (all p<0.05).
Discussion Many people were unaware that burning the cigarette is the primary source of toxic constituents in cigarette smoke. Constituents that may most discourage cigarette smoking have familiar names, like arsenic and formaldehyde and do not start with a number or end in ene/ine. Our findings may help campaign designers develop constituent messages that discourage smoking.
Contributors NTB and JKP led instrument development. RPA and MHB led and oversaw data collection. JCM, MHB and RPA conducted data analysis. NTB led writing. All authors made significant contributions to the interpretation of data reported here and the manuscript's conceptualisation, writing and revision.
Funding Research reported in this publication was supported by grant number P50CA180907 from the National Cancer Institute and FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP).
Disclaimer The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH or the Food and Drug Administration.
Competing interests KMR has served as an expert consultant in litigation against cigarette manufacturers and internet tobacco vendors.
Ethics approval The University of North Carolina Institutional Review Board approved study protocol and materials.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.