Table 1

Parental reports of anti-smoking socialisation three months post-intervention

Evaluation groups*Evaluation strategy
AssignedExposedControlEfficacy evaluation†Effectiveness evaluation‡
(n=327)(n=210)(n=344)Exposed v controlAssigned v control
%yes%yes%yesOR§95% CIp ValueOR95% CIp Value
*Random assignment placed 327 participants in the treatment group; of these, 210 were exposed to ⩾3 of 5 core programme modules.
†The efficacy evaluation compared parents who reported exposure to ⩾3 modules (n=210) with controls (n=344).
‡The effectiveness evaluation compared parents randomly assigned to treatment (n=327) with controls (n=344).
§Odds ratios adjusted for child’s sex, parent’s sex, parent’s education, and parent’s race.
Gain self efficacy to prevent smoking
Smokers can do a lot to prevent smoking91.393.286.72.29(1.20 to 4.34)0.011.78(1.06 to 2.95).02
Would know if child has tried smoking79.181.369.11.84(1.21 to 2.18)0.001.60(1.12 to 2.27).01
Disclose smoking experience
Parent explains own smoking history72.375.164.71.66(1.11 to 2.45)0.011.46(1.04 to 2.04).02
Parent describes addiction to tobacco87.891.486.01.77(1.02 to 2.88)0.051.28(0.93 to 1.74).30
Communicate negative consequences
Explain negative consequences to child64.771.353.92.03(1.39 to 2.95)0.001.49(1.08 to 2.03).01
Make own negative attitude explicit86.288.081.41.77(1.08 to 2.93)0.021.50(0.99 to 2.26).06
Reinforce smoke-free status
Reward child for being smoke-free23.730.612.82.77(1.78 to 4.29)0.001.95(1.29 to 2.93).00
Express pride in child for not smoking92.096.285.24.16(1.92 to 9.00)0.002.04(1.22 to 3.39).00
Teach child media literacy
Debunk tobacco print advertisements71.280.549.74.26(2.82 to 6.41)0.002.58(1.88 to 3.53).00
Discuss smoking by actors, performers52.562.433.43.15(2.18 to 4.52)0.002.10(1.53 to 2.87).00
Prepare child to respond to peers
Explain actual v perceived prevalence46.554.840.71.72(1.19 to 2.44)0.001.26(0.91 to 1.72).15
Engage child in refusal skills practice81.389.570.63.66(2.20 to 6.08)0.001.90(1.30 to 2.75).00
Monitor smoking initiation
Ask if child has tried smoking70.274.365.71.49(1.10 to 2.13)0.041.24(0.88 to 1.73).20
Ask if friends have tried smoking64.469.060.31.47(1.07 to 2.13)0.041.23(0.89 to 1.68).20
Reduce child’s exposure to smoke
Parent smokes only outside the home29.430.428.51.10(0.72 to 1.65)0.651.11(0.78 to 1.58).56
Parent restricts smoking inside home24.427.321.61.37(0.83 to 2.23)0.211.18(0.76 to 1.81).46
Establish social contracts with child
Child agrees to never try smoking56.167.039.53.15(2.18 to 4.54)0.002.01(1.50 to 2.70).00
Child agrees to tell if friends smoke68.272.959.21.78(1.21 to 2.61)0.001.45(1.06 to 1.98).02