Table 3

 Smoking cost studies by type of study, California

StudyStudy yearCost (billions)
*Discounted at 4%.
†Discounted at 3%.
CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; DHSS, Department of Health and Human Services; NA, not available
Kaplan and Wright281985$4.8$2.3$7.1
US DHHS291985NANA$5.8
California Dept of Health Services301988NANA$5.9
Rice and Max311989$2.4$5.2*$7.6
Max and Rice321993$3.6$6.3*$10
V Miller et al341993$7.1NANA
L. Miller et al161993$8.7NANA
Current study1999$8.6$7.2†$15.8