Table 5

Marginal effects from the logit model of probability of using discount brand cigarettes in Canada and the USA, 2002–2005

Dependent variable: uses discount brand cigarettes=1 premium brand cigarettes=0CanadaThe USA
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
Ratio of discount brand to premium brand price (self-reported price of used brand)-0.180***−0.202***
(−3.42)(−5.48)
Ratio of discount brand to premium brand price (imputed price of used brand)−0.782**−0.308
(−3.08)(−1.83)
Household income
$10 000–$29 9990.01050.00802−0.0625*−0.0673**
(0.27)(0.21)(−2.51)(−2.66)
$30 000–$44 999−0.0482−0.0518−0.0831**−0.0887***
(−1.37)(−1.45)(−3.24)(−3.38)
$45 000–$59 999−0.0573−0.0751*−0.140***−0.140***
(−1.62)(−2.19)(−6.54)(−6.43)
$60 000–$74 999−0.0490−0.0521−0.134***−0.139***
(−1.28)(−1.35)(−6.33)(−6.40)
$75 000–$99 999−0.101**−0.113***−0.186***−0.190***
(−3.14)(−3.58)(−11.24)(−11.24)
$100 000–$149 999−0.103**−0.0999**−0.185***−0.193***
(−2.84)(−2.64)(−11.02)(−11.40)
$150 000 and over−0.0906−0.0785−0.192***−0.199***
(−1.94)(−1.47)(−11.36)(−11.41)
Highest level of education
Completed high school0.01490.0327−0.00197−0.0157
(0.57)(1.20)(−0.07)(−0.57)
Technical, trade school, community college−0.01730.00007350.03200.0163
(−0.72)(0.00)(1.14)(0.57)
Some university–no degree−0.0711*−0.05300.02040.0161
(−2.47)(−1.68)(0.56)(0.46)
Dependent variable: uses discount brand cigarettes=1 premium brand cigarettes=0CanadaThe USA
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
Completed university−0.0410−0.0252−0.0728**−0.0888***
Degree(−1.43)(−0.81)(−2.66)(−3.32)
Postgraduate degree−0.0991**−0.0702−0.0816*−0.0857*
(−2.84)(−1.75)(−2.39)(−2.45)
Age0.00277***0.00296***0.00608***0.00627***
(4.72)(5.08)(11.19)(11.83)
Male−0.0749***−0.0818***−0.0423*−0.0457**
(−4.43)(−4.91)(−2.52)(−2.79)
White, English only0.114***0.108***0.108***0.107***
(5.02)(4.83)(5.57)(5.63)
Married, cohabitating0.0361*0.0496**0.0574***0.0599***
(2.06)(2.86)(3.33)(3.39)
Received tobacco industry promotions0.164***0.163***−0.0200−0.0250
(8.58)(8.82)(−1.30)(−1.58)
Year 20030.01660.005890.01830.0191
(1.13)(0.40)(1.58)(1.69)
Year 20040.185***0.121***0.0331*0.0333*
(9.99)(3.94)(2.17)(2.18)
Year 20050.232***0.164***−0.0263−0.0225
(10.13)(4.65)(−1.47)(−1.26)
Observations5962649763076898
  • The omitted categories include single, non-white, non-English female smokers with highest level of education below high school, household income under $10 000, those who did not receive tobacco industry promotions and observations in the year 2002.

  • The estimated coefficients represent marginal effects for small change in continuous variables and for discrete change in categorical variables from 0 to 1 with reference to the omitted categories.

  • t statistics are reported in parentheses below the coefficient estimates.

  • * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001.