Table 2

Summary of outcomes of included studies

Outcomes
StudyCessationBehavioural
1Awofeso et al, 200143 +NA
2Clarke et al, 201344 +NA
3Cropsey and Kristeller, 200531 N
4Cropsey et al, 200830 +NA
5Etter et al, 201245 + and −NA
6Howell et al, 201532 NNA
7Jalali et al, 201533 +NA
8Kauffman et al, 201134 + and −
9Lasnier et al, 201146 +
10Leone and Kinkade, 199447 N
11Lincoln et al, 200942 +NA
12MacAskill et al, 200835 +
13Makris et al, 201236 +NA
14Naik et al, 201437 +NA
15Richmond et al, 20068 +NA
16Richmond et al, 201338 + (short term)NA
17Thibodeau et al, 201039 +NA
18Turan and Turan 201648 NA
19Turner et al 201340 NA+
20Voglewede and Noel 200441 NANA
  • NA, not applicable.

  • +, positive effect.

  • −, negative effect.

  • N, no effect.