Table 1

State antismoking advertisement themes and intercoder reliability

ThemeDefinitionExample phrase or taglineCohen’s κ
Youth argeted (vs adult or general targeted)Themes aimed to deter youth from initiating smoking‘Smelly puking habit;’
‘truth’ (Florida state campaign)
Efficacy appealThemes with a focus on quitting tobacco; these often include a quit help line or website‘You can do it!’0.92
Health consequences to selfThemes that raise awareness of the health consequences of smoking or benefits of quitting‘Smoking shortens your life;’ ‘If smoking did on the outside what it did on the inside, nobody would smoke.’0.94
Anti-industry appealThemes claiming that tobacco companies know that their product kills and is addictive, manipulate their customers and only care about company profits‘Cigarettes kill, that’s the goal of Big Tobacco;’ ‘It’s time to break the tobacco industry’s grip.’0.96
Health consequences to othersThemes that focus on the impact of secondhand smoke‘Someone smoking around us means we all do.’0.90
Irrationality/addiction appealsThemes that attempt to debunk the myth that cigarettes are good for mental health/stability or describe the addictiveness of cigarettes or nicotine‘Cigarettes only add to your stress;’ ‘Cigarettes are addictive.’0.97
  • GED, General Education Diploma; κ, kappa. For additional details on coding categories, see Niederdeppe et al.20