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Prevalence and correlates of smoking on the roof of the world


OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adults in high mountain rural areas of northern Pakistan.

DESIGN Cross sectional survey.

PARTICIPANTS A sample of 4203 adults (aged 18 years and over) were selected by stratified random sampling from 16 villages.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Self reported smoking prevalence; age of smoking initiation; daily cigarette consumption and association between current smoking and sociodemographic variables, use of snuff, wine, body mass index, blood pressure, family history of stroke, and hypertension.

RESULTS 614/1406 men (43.7%) and 154/2797 (5.5%) women reported smoking cigarettes. The age standardised prevalence of smoking was 40.5% for men and 6.3% for women. Men were more likely (odds ratio (OR) 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.75 to 8.79) to be smokers. Smokers were more likely to use snuff (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.73), drink wine (OR 3.47, 95% CI 2.81 to 4.29), and were more likely to work as farmers (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.29) or shopkeepers (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.67 to 4.14). Individuals with college level education and with desirable body mass index were less likely to smoke (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.87; OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.96).

CONCLUSION Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem in this high mountain community of Pakistan, particularly among the male population, the majority of whom begin to smoke quite early in life. A comprehensive tobacco control effort incorporated into the existing community based health infrastructure is needed.

  • Pakistan
  • prevalence of smoking

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