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Smoke-free law did not affect revenue from gaming in Delaware
  1. L L Mandel,
  2. B C Alamar,
  3. S A Glantz
  1. Center for Tobacco Control, Research & Education, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to:
 Professor Stanton A Glantz
 Center for Tobacco Control, Research & Education, University of California, San Francisco, 530 Parnassus Ave, Suite 366, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; glantzmedicine.ucsf.edu

Abstract

Objective: To determine the effect of the Delaware smoke-free law on gaming revenue.

Methods: Linear regression of gaming revenue and average revenue per machine on a public policy variable, time, while controlling for economic activity and seasonal effects.

Results: The linear regression showed that the smoke-free law was associated with no effect on total revenue or average revenue per machine.

Conclusion: Smoke-free laws are associated with no change in gaming revenue.

  • economics
  • gambling
  • gaming
  • public policy
  • tobacco smoke pollution
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Supplementary materials

  • Erratum to Mandel, L; BC Alamar; and SA Glantz. Smokefree Law did not affect revenue from gaming in Delaware. Tobacco Control 14 (2005), 10-12.

    The results in the original publication reflect a data entry error. The revised table in this erratum present the results with this error corrected. Using the corrected data, White's test for heteroskedasticity rejected homoskedasticity (p = 0.016) in the case of total revenues. We corrected for the heteroskedasticity in total revenues by using a weighted least squares analysis using the inverse of the number of video lottery machines as the weight. White's test of the residuals from the weighted regression did not reject homoskedasticity (p=0.293). Average revenues were homoskedastic (p=0.13) so we continued to use an unweighted regression, as in the original paper. The analysis based on the corrected data confirms the results of the published paper, that the smokefree law had no effect on revenue from gaming in Delaware.



    Table 1. Estimated effects of the smokefree law

     

    Total Revenues

     (Weighted Least Squares)

    Average Revenue per Machine

    (Ordinary Least Squares)

    Unit

    ($million)

    ($/machine)

    Variable

    Estimate

    Standard Error

    p value

    Estimate

    Standard Error

    p value

    Plaw(unit/month)

    -2.404

    3.302

    0.468

    -1158.11

    745.10

    0.123

    Time (unit/month)

    0.612

    0.102

    <0.001

    96.47

    36.70

    0.010

    Time2(unit/month2)

    -0.005

    0.001

    <0.001

    -0.31

    0.278

    0.259

    Machines(unit/machine)

    0.003

    0.001

    0.024

    -2.424

    -2.762

    <0.001

    Income (unit/$million)

    7.568

    1.087

    <0.001

    10717.00

    467.00

    <0.001

    Winter

    -4.147

    0.872

    <0.001

    -1353.01

    314.79

    <0.001

    n

    101

     

     

    101

     

     

    R2

    0.669

     

     

    0.639

     

     

    Footnotes

    • This research was supported by National Cancer Institute Grant CA-61021

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