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Death at a discount: how the tobacco industry thwarted tobacco control policies in US military commissaries
  1. Elizabeth A Smith1,
  2. Viginia S Blackman2,
  3. Ruth E Malone3
  1. 1University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
  2. 2Naval Medical Center, Portsmouth, Virginia, USA
  3. 3University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr E A Smith
 Department of Social & Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, Box 0612 San Francisco, CA 94143-0612, USA;libby.smith{at}


Background: The US military is perhaps the only retailer consistently losing money on tobacco. Military stores (commissaries and exchanges) have long sold discount-priced cigarettes, while the Department of Defense (DoD) pays directly for tobacco-related healthcare costs of many current and former customers. Tobacco use also impairs short-term troop readiness.

Objective: To examine the long struggle to raise commissary tobacco prices and the tobacco industry’s role in this policy effort.

Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, searches of government and military websites and newspaper databases, and interviews with key informants identified in the documents.

Results: Efforts to raise commissary tobacco prices began in the mid-1980s. Opposition quickly emerged. Some military officials viewed tobacco use as a “right” and low prices as a “benefit”. Others raised issues of authority, and some saw the change as threatening the stores. The tobacco industry successfully exploited complex relationships among the Congress, the DoD, commissaries, exchanges and private industry, obstructing change for over a decade. Leadership from the Secretary and Assistant Secretaries of Defense, presidential support and procedural manoeuvring finally resulted in a modest price increase in 1996, but even then, high-level military officials were apparently threatened with retaliation from pro-tobacco Congressmen.

Conclusions: The longstanding military tradition of cheap cigarettes persists because of the politics of the military sales system, the perception within the military of tobacco use as a right, and tobacco industry pressures. Against its own best interests, the US military still makes tobacco available to service members at prices below those in the civilian sector.

  • DoD, Department of Defense
  • HASC, House Armed Services Committee
  • MWR, Morale, Welfare and Recreation

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  • Funding: This study was supported by the National Cancer Institute (grant # CA109153).

  • Competing interests: REM owns a share each of Philip Morris (Altria) and Reynolds American stock for research and advocacy purposes.

  • VSB is an active duty military service member. This work was prepared as part of her official duties. Title 17 U.S.C. 105 provides that “Copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the United States Government.” Title 17 U.S.C. 101 defines a US Government work as a work prepared by a military service member or employee of the US Government as part of that person’s official duties. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense or the US Government.