Article Text

Download PDFPDF
The California Tobacco Control Program’s effect on adult smokers: (3) Similar effects for African Americans across states
  1. Dennis R Trinidad,
  2. Karen Messer,
  3. Elizabeth A Gilpin,
  4. Wael K Al-Delaimy,
  5. Martha M White,
  6. John P Pierce
  1. Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr J P Pierce
 Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, 3855 Health Sciences Drive, 0901, La Jolla, California 92093–0901, USA; jppierce{at}


Objective: To compare trends in African-American (AA) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) smoking between states categorised as having three different levels of tobacco control practice in the 1990s.

Setting and participants: Analysis of 1992–3 to 2001–2 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey for differences in adult (20–64 years) daily smoking prevalence for AAs and NHWs across states: California (CA; high cigarette price/comprehensive programme), New York (NY) and New Jersey (NJ; high cigarette price/no comprehensive programme), and tobacco growing states (TGS; low cigarette price/no comprehensive programme).

Results: From 1992–3 to 2001–2, there were large declines in AA smoking across states (2.7–3.8% decrease/year, adjusted for age, income, education, gender; p<0.05). Adjusted NHW smoking prevalence declined significantly only in CA. AA prevalence declined significantly and did not differ across state groups. In all years, in all state groups, adjusted prevalence was either not significantly different or was lower for AAs than for NHWs. More recent cohorts of AAs appeared to have taken up smoking at lower rates than older cohorts.

Conclusion: There were uniformly large declines in AA smoking from 1992–3 to 2001–2 across states, independent of type of tobacco control strategy. Further research is needed into factors associated with smoking declines among AAs.

  • AA, African-American
  • CPS, Current Population Survey
  • NHW, non-Hispanic white
  • TGS, tobacco-growing states
  • TUS, Tobacco Use Supplements
  • TUS–CPS, Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Funding: This study was supported by two Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program grants (12KT-0158, 12RT-0082 and 15RT-0238) from the University of California, California, USA.

  • Competing interests: None.

  • The granting agency (Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program) did not have any role in either design or conduct of the study or preparation, review or approval of the manuscript.