Objective: To investigate the relation between domestic violence and tobacco use among adults in India.
Design: Multilevel cross sectional analyses of a nationally representative population based sample from the 1998–9 Indian national family health survey.
Participants: 278 977 individuals aged 15 or older; and 89 092 ever married women aged 15–49.
Main outcome: Dichotomous variables for smoking and chewing tobacco.
Results: Women who reported being abused more than one year ago and those who reported being abused in the past year were more likely to smoke and chew tobacco than women who have never experienced domestic violence. Compared to individuals who lived in homes where no abuse was reported, those who lived in homes where a woman reported experiencing domestic violence were more likely to smoke and chew tobacco.
Conclusion: Domestic violence is associated with higher odds of smoking and chewing tobacco in India. Efforts to control tobacco use need to consider the larger psychosocial circumstances within which individuals who practise such harmful health behaviours reside.
- domestic violence
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Funding: No direct financial support was available for this study.
Competing interests: SVS as the corresponding author has had full access to all data in the study and has final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. All of the authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding this manuscript.
Contributors: SVS conceived the study, designed the analysis, and contributed to the interpretation of the results and writing of the manuscript. LA led the analysis, interpretation, and writing of the manuscript. IK, and EB contributed to the interpretation of the results. All authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript.
- domestic violence
- National Family Health Survey