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Comprehensive smoke-free legislation in England: how advocacy won the day
  1. Deborah Arnott1,
  2. Martin Dockrell2,
  3. Amanda Sandford2,
  4. Ian Willmore3
  1. 1
    ASH, 102 Clifton Street, London EC2A 4HW
  2. 2
    ASH, London, UK
  3. 3
    London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, London, UK
  1. Deborah Arnott, Director, ASH, 102 Clifton Street, London EC2A 4HW, UK; Deborah.arnott{at}


Objective: To examine how a government committed to a voluntary approach was forced by an effective advocacy coalition to introduce comprehensive smoke-free legislation.

Methods: A diary was kept from the start of the campaign in 2003, backed up by journal and press articles, and information downloaded from the web. Regular public opinion polls were also carried out to supplement government surveys and polls conducted by the media.

Results: The 1997 Labour Government was committed to a voluntary approach to deal with the problem of secondhand smoke. By 2003, efforts to persuade government to introduce regulation of workplace secondhand smoke through a health and safety code of practice with exemptions for the hospitality trade, had failed. Despite a lack of support from the government, including the health minister, a new strategy by health advocates focusing on comprehensive workplace legislation was able to succeed.

Conclusions: In a democracy it is crucial to develop public knowledge and belief in the extent of the risks of secondhand smoke. Gaining public and media support for the issue can ensure that government has to take action and that the legislation will be enforceable. The interests of the tobacco industry and the hospitality trade differ and this can be used to gain hospitality trade support for comprehensive national legislation in order to ensure a level playing field and protection from litigation.

  • advocacy
  • smoke-free legislation
  • secondhand smoke

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  • *Until October 2006 IW was Public Affairs Manager at ASH.

  • The work of ASH in lobbying for smoke-free legislation was funded by the British Heart Foundation and Cancer Research UK, both of which are also key members of the Smokefree Action Coalition.

  • Competing interests: none.

  • Abbreviations:
    approved code of practice
    atmosphere improves results
    Action on Smoking and Health
    Tobacco Manufacturers’ Association