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Direct disease-inducing effects of menthol through the eyes of tobacco companies
  1. M Victoria Salgado1,
  2. Stanton A Glantz2
  1. 1Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
  2. 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, and Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
  1. Correspondence toProfessor Stanton A Glantz, UCSF Library, 530 Parnassus Avenue, Room 366, Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-1390, USA; glantz{at}


Objective Menthol is an important additive in most tobacco products and is an identifying characteristic of many brands. We assessed tobacco companies' research on direct disease-inducing effects of menthol and menthol cigarettes.

Methods A search was conducted among documents included in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. Relevant documents addressed subject areas such as pharmacology, short-term and long-term effects and biomarkers of smoking exposure.

Results The documents contain little internal industry research on the disease-inducing effects of menthol. Most information in the tobacco industry documents are reviews of the published biomedical literature, from which the companies concluded that menthol did not have any direct disease-inducing effects. Evidence that contradicted this conclusion was downplayed. Except for one study, there was no evidence of the companies following up on positive findings in the literature with their own studies. In one case, results were presented at a public scientific meeting concluding that ‘There were no effects from addition of menthol to test or reference cigarettes’, when a company's internal pathology analysis contradicted this statement.

Conclusion The available industry documents suggest that tobacco companies conducted little research on the potential disease-inducing effects of menthol and did not pursue studies that suggested adverse effects.

  • Menthol
  • tobacco
  • adverse effects
  • health effects
  • tobacco industry
  • public policy

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. See: and

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