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Reducing the nicotine content to make cigarettes less addictive
  1. Neal L Benowitz1,
  2. Jack E Henningfield2
  1. 1Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Departments of Medicine and Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
  2. 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences—Behavioral Biology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Pinney Associates, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Neal L Benowitz, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Departments of Medicine and Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143-1220, USA; NBenowitz{at}MedSFGH.ucsf.edu

Abstract

Nicotine is highly addictive and is primarily responsible for the maintenance of cigarette smoking. In 1994, Benowitz and Henningfield proposed the idea of federal regulation of the nicotine content of cigarettes such that the nicotine content of cigarettes would be reduced over time, resulting in lower intake of nicotine and a lower level of nicotine dependence. When nicotine levels get very low, cigarettes would be much less addictive. As a result, fewer young people who experiment with cigarettes would become addicted adult smokers and previously addicted smokers would find it easier to quit smoking when they attempt to do so. The regulatory authority to promulgate such a public health strategy was provided by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Although it precludes ‘reducing nicotine to zero’, the act does not prohibit the Food and Drug Administration from setting standards for cigarette nicotine content that would prevent them from being capable of causing addiction. This paper reviews the assumptions implicit in a nicotine reduction strategy, examines the available data on the feasibility and safety of nicotine reduction, and discusses the public education, surveillance and support services that would be needed for the implementation of such a policy.

  • Nicotine
  • Addiction
  • Cessation

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