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Variable and potentially fatal amounts of nicotine in e-cigarette nicotine solutions
  1. Jennifer M Cameron1,
  2. Donelle N Howell1,
  3. John R White2,
  4. David M Andrenyak3,4,
  5. Matthew E Layton1,
  6. John M Roll1
  1. 1College of Nursing, Program of Excellence in the Addictions, Nursing, Washington State University, Spokane, Washington, USA
  2. 2Department of Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Spokane, Washington, USA
  3. 3College of Pharmacy, Center for Human Toxicology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
  4. 4College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Donelle N Howell, Program of Excellence in Addictions, Nursing, Washington State University, PO BOX 1495, Spokane, WA 99210-1495, USA; dnhowell{at}

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Experimental research on electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is sparse. Regulated as tobacco products by the US Food and Drug Administration, e-cigarette safety has not been determined. This enables the sale of e-cigarettes and tobacco-derived nicotine solution to consumers without rigorous safety regulations that would be required if the products were regulated as drug delivery devices.1 As such, despite the recent popularity of e-cigarettes as an alternative to cigarette smoking, consumers currently do not have industry-regulated information on the concentration of e-cigarette solutions or their safety.1 The present study reports the nicotine concentration of several of these solutions.


A convenience sample of seven e-cigarette nicotine solutions was analysed. Samples ranged from prepackaged and sealed with concentration levels printed on the labels to blank bottles with hand-written labels with no concentration level, warning …

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  • Contributors All authors of this research contributed in a significant way to the manuscript and have read and approved the final manuscript. Authors had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

  • Funding This investigation was supported in part by funds provided for medical and biological research by the State of Washington Initiative Measure No. 171 (WSU Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Program) and by funds from the Department of Justice CKWX0042, PI: John Roll (WSU Program of Excellence in the Addictions)..

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.