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Electronic nicotine delivery systems: regulatory and safety challenges: Singapore perspective
  1. Nuan Ping Cheah1,
  2. Norman Wee Lin Chong2,
  3. Jing Tan1,
  4. Faridatul Akmam Morsed1,
  5. Shen Kuan Yee2
  1. 1Cigarette Testing Laboratory, Applied Sciences Group, Health Sciences Authority, Singapore
  2. 2Tobacco Regulation Branch, Health Products Regulation Group, Health Sciences Authority, Singapore
  1. Correspondence to Dr Nuan Ping Cheah, Cigarette Testing Laboratory, Applied Sciences Group, Health Sciences Authority, 11 Outram Road, Singapore 169078, Singapore; cheah_nuan_ping{at}


Objective Many electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are marketed as safer tobacco alternative products or effective cessation therapies. ENDS samples were evaluated for design features, including nicotine and glycols content. This could be useful in developing a legal framework to handle ENDS.

Methods Identification of the nicotine, glycerol and propylene glycol (PPG) contents was conducted using gas chromatography mass spectrometry with quantification performed using flame ionisation techniques.

Results Varying nicotine amounts were found in ENDS cartridges which were labelled with the same concentration. Chemicals such as PPG and glycerol were found to be present in the nicotine-containing liquid of the cartridges. ENDS varied in their contents and packaging information. Limited information was available on the contents of nicotine and other chemicals present in a variety of ENDS sampled.

Conclusions Based on samples tested in this study, many contain misleading information on product ingredients. The results show poor consistency between actual nicotine content analysed on ENDS cartridges and the amount labelled. These findings raise safety and efficacy concerns for current and would-be recreational users or those trying to quit smoking.

  • Electronic nicotine delivery devices
  • Nicotine
  • Packaging and Labelling

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