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A dual-frame sampling methodology to address landline replacement in tobacco control research
  1. Robert C McMillen1,2,
  2. Jonathan P Winickoff1,3,
  3. Karen Wilson1,4,
  4. Susanne Tanski1,5,
  5. Jonathan D Klein1
  1. 1AAP Tobacco Consortium and Julius B. Richmond Center, Elk Grove Village, Illinois, USA
  2. 2Social Science Research Center and Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi, USA
  3. 3MGH Center for Child and Adolescent Health Policy, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  4. 4Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA
  5. 5Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Robert McMillen, Social Science Research Center and Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University, One Research Park, Suite 103, Starkville, MS 39759, USA; rcm19{at}


Objectives We assessed the comparability of self-reported smoking prevalence estimates from a dual-frame survey with those from two large-scale, national surveys.

Methods The Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control (SCS-TC) obtained self-reported current smoking status via a dual-frame methodology in the fall of 2010. One frame used random digit dialling procedures and consisted of households with a landline telephone; the other frame consisted of a population-based probability-based online panel. Current smoking prevalence was compared with national estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

Results 18.3% (95% CI 17.0% to 19.6%) of SCS-TC respondents reported current smoking. NHIS and NHANES estimates found 19.4% (95% CI 18.8% to 20.1%) and 20.3% (95% CI 18.7% to 22.1%), respectively, reporting current smoking.

Conclusions Prevalence estimates for cigarette smoking obtained from the dual-frame SCS-TC are comparable to those from other national surveys. A mixed-mode approach may be a useful strategy to transition cross-sectional surveys with established trend data to newer dual-frame designs to maintain compatibility with surveys from previous years and to include the growing number of households that do not have landline telephones.

  • Surveillance and monitoring
  • Prevention
  • Disparities

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