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Rapidly increasing promotional expenditures for e-cigarettes

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  • Contributors Conceived and designed the study: SLE, JH, RK, LV; acquired and managed the data: RK, SLE; analysed the data: RK, JH, SLE; wrote the paper: RK, JH, LV; supervised the research: SLE

  • Funding This work was supported by the National Cancer Institute grant number U01CA154254 and by the National Institutes of Health grant number P50-CA-179546-01. The funding bodies did not play any role in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect those of the sponsors.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.