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Determinants of smoking-induced deprivation in China
  1. Tingting Yao1,2,
  2. Jidong Huang3,
  3. Hai-Yen Sung1,
  4. Michael K Ong4,
  5. Zhengzhong Mao5,
  6. Yuan Jiang6,
  7. Geoffrey T Fong7,8,9,
  8. Wendy Max1
  1. 1Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
  2. 2Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
  3. 3Health Policy Center, Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  4. 4Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA
  5. 5Huaxi School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
  6. 6National Tobacco Control Office, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
  7. 7Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
  8. 8Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  9. 9School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Tingting Yao, Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco, 3333 California Street, Suite 340, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA; tingting.yao{at}ucsf.edu

Abstract

Objective Spending on cigarettes may deprive households of other items like food. The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with this smoking-induced deprivation among adult smokers in China.

Methods The data came from Waves 1–3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, conducted from 2006 to 2009 among urban adults aged 18 years or older in China. We focus on the samples of current smokers from six cities (N=7981). Smoking-induced deprivation was measured with the survey question, “In the last six months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?” We examined whether sociodemographic factors, smoking intensity and price paid per pack of cigarettes were associated with smoking-induced deprivation using generalised estimating equations modelling.

Findings 7.3% of smokers reported smoking-induced deprivation due to purchasing cigarettes. Low-income and middle-income smokers were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with high-income smokers (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.06, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.31; AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.69); smokers living in Shenyang (AOR=1.68, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.24) and Yinchuan (AOR=2.50, 95% CI 1.89 to 3.32) were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with smokers living in Beijing. Retired smokers were less likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with employed smokers (AOR=0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.87). There was no statistically significant relationship between smoking intensity, price paid per pack of cigarettes and smoking-induced deprivation.

Conclusions Our findings indicate that certain groups of smokers in China acknowledge spending money on cigarettes that could be better spent on household essentials. Tobacco control policies that reduce smoking in China may improve household living standards by reducing smoking-induced deprivation.

  • Low/Middle income country
  • Global health
  • Public policy
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