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One in every 10 cigarettes might be illicit, and these products are more common in low-income than in high-income countries.1 Iran and Iraq are the two main target markets for tobacco smuggling in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.2 A small survey in Tehran, in 2005, showed that 40% of smokers used illicit cigarettes.3 Another study, in 2009, revealed that 20.9% of smokers in Tehran consumed illicit cigarettes.4 Since 2009, new health warnings and holograms have been introduced on cigarette packs in Iran. In addition, the retail of cigarettes has been controlled5 and street selling forbidden.6 ,7 We designed this study to assess trends in the illicit cigarette trade in Tehran.
A cross-sectional study of 2130 smokers aged 15 years and over who reported …
Contributors GH had the original idea, designed the study and outlined the first draft of the manuscript. LJ contributed to the conceptualisation, revision of the article for important intellectual content and English editing. FC, MBS, LF and MRM read and approved the final manuscript.
Competing interests None declared.
Ethics approval National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.