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Determinants of progression of nicotine dependence symptoms in adolescent waterpipe smokers
  1. Raed Bahelah1,2,
  2. Kenneth D Ward3,4,
  3. Ziyad Ben Taleb1,
  4. Joseph R DiFranza5,
  5. Thomas Eissenberg6,
  6. Rana Jaber1,7,8,
  7. Wasim Maziak1,4
  1. 1 Department of Epidemiology, Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA
  2. 2 Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Aden, Aden, Yemen
  3. 3 University of Memphis School of Public Health, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
  4. 4 Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies, Aleppo, Syria
  5. 5 Reliant Medical Group, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
  6. 6 Center for the Study of Tobacco Products, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA
  7. 7 Baptist Health South Florida, Miami, Florida, USA
  8. 8 American Heart Association Tobacco Regulation and Addiction Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Raed Bahelah, Department of Epidemiology, Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA; rbahe002{at}fiu.edu

Footnotes

  • Contributors RB and WM conceptualised and designed the study, supervised data collection, performed the initial analyses, contributed to interpretation of the data and drafted the initial manuscript, and critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. KDW, ZBT, JRD, TE and RJ contributed to interpretation of the data and critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

  • Funding The WDLY study is funded by grants R01DA035160 and R01TW010654 from the National Institute of Health Fogarty International Center (NIH FIC) and National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) of the National Institute of Health (PI: WM). TE is supported, in part, by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number P50DA036105 and the Center for Tobacco Products of the US Food and Drug Administration. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the views of the NIH or the FDA. RJ was supported by the American Heart Association Tobacco Regulation and Addiction Center under National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health and Center for Tobacco Products Award Number P50HL120163.

  • Competing interests TE is a paid consultant in litigation against the tobacco industry and is named on a patent application for a device that measures the puffing behaviour of electronic cigarette users.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval The institutional review boards of Florida International University and the American University of Beirut approved Waterpipe Dependence in Lebanese Youth study (WDLY).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors RB and WM conceptualised and designed the study, supervised data collection, performed the initial analyses, contributed to interpretation of the data and drafted the initial manuscript, and critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. KDW, ZBT, JRD, TE and RJ contributed to interpretation of the data and critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

  • Funding The WDLY study is funded by grants R01DA035160 and R01TW010654 from the National Institute of Health Fogarty International Center (NIH FIC) and National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) of the National Institute of Health (PI: WM). TE is supported, in part, by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number P50DA036105 and the Center for Tobacco Products of the US Food and Drug Administration. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the views of the NIH or the FDA. RJ was supported by the American Heart Association Tobacco Regulation and Addiction Center under National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health and Center for Tobacco Products Award Number P50HL120163.

  • Competing interests TE is a paid consultant in litigation against the tobacco industry and is named on a patent application for a device that measures the puffing behaviour of electronic cigarette users.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval The institutional review boards of Florida International University and the American University of Beirut approved Waterpipe Dependence in Lebanese Youth study (WDLY).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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