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Illicit cigarette trade in Metropolitan Santiago de Chile
  1. Guillermo Paraje1,
  2. Daniel Araya2,
  3. Jeffrey Drope3
  1. 1 Business School, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Santiago de Chile, Chile
  2. 2 Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Santiago de Chile, Chile
  3. 3 Economic and Health Policy Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Guillermo Paraje, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Business School, Santiago de Chile, Chile; guillermo.paraje{at}


Objective To estimate with a rigorous statistical methodology and independent from the tobacco industry the prevalence and consumption of illicit cigarettes in Metropolitan Santiago de Chile, in addition to identifying the variables statistically associated with choosing to smoke illicit cigarettes.

Methods Surveys of 851 smokers who reside in the Metropolitan Santiago were collected using a sampling design that combined a randomisation of high-traffic points and a quota sampling to approximate the smoking population. Photographs of packs along with questions on where they were bought were used to define whether cigarettes were licit or illicit. After this identification, the statistical association between the decision to smoke illicit cigarettes and sociodemographic variables and smoking habits was estimated using probit models.

Results The proportion of smokers smoking illicit cigarettes in Metropolitan Santiago was 10.9%. Adjusted by smoking intensity, 16.3% of cigarettes smoked in a month were illicit. Models show that the probability of smoking illicit cigarettes is inversely associated with employment status (ie, employed/inactive/unemployed), and smokers with lower levels of education are more likely to smoke illicit cigarettes. Though smokers’ incomes are not directly measured, both employment status and educational levels are indicative that illicit cigarette consumption is more prevalent among low-income groups.

Conclusions The proportion of smokers consuming illicit cigarettes estimated in this research is less than half of the widely publicised claims of the tobacco industry. Furthermore, past and present pricing strategies by the tobacco industry indicate that, contrary to public statements, the tobacco industry is not concerned by illicit trade.

  • illegal tobacco products
  • public policy
  • taxation
  • tobacco industry

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  • Contributors GP designed the questionnaire and the study in general. GP and DA run the models and interpreted and analysed results. All authors discussed findings, interpreted results in terms of policies and wrote the manuscript.

  • Funding This work was carried out with the aid of a grant from the American Cancer Society (ACS) and a grant from the Global Tobacco Control Leadership Program of the Bloomberg School of Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University. ACS, as an independent research institution publishes widely, funded primarily by small donors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval The Institutional Review Board clearance was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Facultad the Economía y Negocios (School of Economics and Business) of the Universidad de Chile, which oversees Centre for Microdata surveys.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement Dataset used to conduct the analyses is available from corresponding author.

  • Collaborators Campos, Natalia; Ruiz-Tagle, Jaime; Quijada, Sandra.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.