Article Text

Download PDFPDF

PhenX: Environment measures for Tobacco Regulatory Research
  1. Jennifer B Unger1,
  2. Frank J Chaloupka2,
  3. Donna Vallone3,
  4. James F Thrasher4,
  5. Destiney S Nettles5,
  6. Tabitha P Hendershot5,
  7. Gary E Swan6
  8. PhenX TRR Environment Working Group
    1. 1 Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA
    2. 2 Department of Health Policy and Administration and Health Policy Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    3. 3 Department of Research and Evaluation, Truth Initiative, Washington, Washington, DC, USA
    4. 4 Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA
    5. 5 RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    6. 6 Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    1. Correspondence to Dr Jennifer B Unger, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA; unger{at}


    Objective A Working Group (WG) of tobacco regulatory science experts identified measures for the tobacco environment domain.

    Methods This article describes the methods by which measures were identified, selected, approved and placed in the PhenX Toolkit.

    Findings The WG identified 20 initial elements relevant to tobacco regulatory science and determined whether they were already in the PhenX Toolkit or whether novel or improved measures existed. In addition to the 10 complementary measures already in the Toolkit, the WG recommended 13 additional measures: aided and confirmed awareness of televised antitobacco advertising, interpersonal communication about tobacco advertising, media use, perceived effectiveness of antitobacco advertising, exposure to smoking on television and in the movies, social norms about tobacco (for adults and for youth), worksite policies, youth cigarette purchase behaviours and experiences, compliance with cigarette packaging and labelling policies, local and state tobacco control public policies, and neighbourhood-level racial/ethnic composition. Supplemental measures included youth social capital and compliance with smoke-free air laws and with point of sale and internet tobacco marketing restrictions. Gaps were identified in the areas of policy environment (public and private), communications environment, community environment and social environment (ie, the norms/acceptability of tobacco use).

    Conclusions Consistent use of these tobacco environment measures will enhance rigor and reproducability of tobacco research.

    • media
    • public policy
    • environment
    View Full Text

    Statistics from


    • Contributors GES, TPH, and KLWled the conceptualisation of the manuscript and the coordination of the writingteam. JBU and GES drafted the scientific content of the manuscript, and TPH andDSN drafted the Methods and Results sections of the manuscript. FJC, DV, and JFT reviewed the draft andprovided substantive revisions. Enver Holder-Hayes, FDA Center for Tobacco Productsand RGM reviewed the draft and provided comments. T he Co-Chairs and Members of the PhenX TRR Environment Working Group identified andproposed preliminary measures and voted on final measures included in the PhenXTRR Environment Specialty Collection. PhenX TRR Panel members AH and GWensured that the Working Group process maintained fidelity with overall projectgoals. Federal Agency Liaisons RG and EH-H ensured project consistency withagency goals and priorities. NIH Project Coordinator KW proposed the PhenX TRRinitiative and contributed to its execution and completion. The PhenX team coordinated and facilitatedthe Working Group process, including project oversight and leadership (TPH),supervisory management (DSN), and project management (RG). Erin M Ramos, National Human Genome Research Institute,is the PhenX NIH Program Official, provided project guidance and fundingcoordination. Carol M Hamilton, RTIInternational, is the PhenX Principal Investigator, and provided project guidance andsupervision.

    • Funding Research reported in this publication was supported by grant number U41HG007050 and U41HG007050-01S1 from the NIH National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP).

    • Disclaimer The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH or the Food and Drug Administration.

    • Competing interests None declared.

    • Patient consent Not required.

    • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

    • Collaborators The following aremembers of the PhenX TobaccoRegulatory Research (TRR) Environment Working Group: Co-Chairs Frank J Chaloupka, Universityof Illinois at Chicago and Donna Vallone, Truth Initiative; Working GroupMembers Jamie F Chriqui,University of Illinois at Chicago, Joanna E Cohen, Johns Hopkins BloombergSchool of Public Health, Jim F Thrasher, University of South Carolina, andJennifer B Unger, University of Southern California; Special Consultant MichaelP Eriksen, GeorgiaState University; TRR Panel Liaisons Andrew Hyland, Roswell Park ComprehensiveCancer Center and Gordon Willis, National Cancer Institute; NIH Liaison RachelGrana Mayne, National Cancer Institute; NIH Project Coordinator, Kay L Wanke,NIH Office of Disease Prevention; and the PhenX team from RTI Internationalincluding Tabitha P Hendershot, TRR RTI Project Lead, Destiny S Nettles, WG Supervisor, and RebeccaGeisler, WG manager.

    Request Permissions

    If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.