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Correlates of tobacco product cessation among youth and adults in the USA: findings from the PATH Study Waves 1–3 (2013–2016)
  1. Karin A Kasza1,
  2. Kathryn C Edwards2,
  3. Zhiqun Tang2,
  4. Cassandra A Stanton2,3,
  5. Eva Sharma2,
  6. Michael J Halenar2,
  7. Kristie A Taylor2,
  8. Elisabeth A Donaldson4,
  9. Lynn C Hull4,
  10. Maansi Bansal-Travers1,
  11. Jean Limpert4,
  12. Izabella Zandberg4,
  13. Lisa D Gardner4,
  14. Hoda T Hammad4,
  15. Nicolette Borek4,
  16. Heather L Kimmel5,
  17. Wilson M Compton5,
  18. Andrew Hyland1
  1. 1 Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, USA
  2. 2 Behavioral Health and Health Policy Practice, Westat, Rockville, MD, USA
  3. 3 Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
  4. 4 Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA
  5. 5 National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Karin A Kasza, Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA; karin.kasza{at}


Objective To report on demographic and tobacco use correlates of cessation behaviours across tobacco products (cigarettes, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), cigars, hookah and smokeless tobacco) among the US population.

Design Data were drawn from the first three waves (2013–2016) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study, a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort study of US youth (ages 12–17) and adults (ages 18+) . Past 30-day (P30D) tobacco users at Wave 1 (W1) or Wave 2 (W2) were included (n=1374 youth; n=14 389 adults). Generalised estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between demographic and tobacco use characteristics at baseline, with cessation behaviours at follow-up (discontinuing use, attempting to quit, quitting), over two 1-year periods (W1–W2, W2–Wave 3).

Results Among adult users of each type of tobacco product, frequency of use was negatively associated with discontinuing use. Among adult cigarette smokers, non-Hispanic white smokers, those with lower educational attainment and those with lower household income were less likely to discontinue cigarette use; ENDS use was positively associated with making quit attempts but was not associated with cigarette quitting among attempters; smokeless tobacco use was positively associated with quitting among attempters; tobacco dependence was negatively associated with quitting among attempters. Among youth cigarette smokers, tobacco dependence was negatively associated with making quit attempts.

Discussion Demographic correlates of tobacco cessation behaviours underscore tobacco use disparities in the USA. Use of ENDS and use of smokeless tobacco products are positively associated with some adult cigarette cessation behaviours.

  • cessation
  • disparities
  • non-cigarette tobacco products
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  • Contributors KAK and KCE led the conceptual design of the work. KAK drafted the initial manuscript and all authors critically revised it. ZT conducted the statistical analyses and all authors contributed to the interpretation of results. All authors approved the work for journal publication and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

  • Funding This manuscript is supported with Federal funds from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, and the Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, under a contract to Westat (Contract No: HHSN271201100027C).

  • Disclaimer The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or any of its affiliated institutions or agencies.

  • Competing interests WMC reports long-term stock holdings in General Electric Company, 3M Company, and Pfizer Incorporated, unrelated to this manuscript. No financial disclosures were reported by the other authors of this paper.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The study was conducted by Westat and approved by the Westat Institutional Review Board. All respondents aged 18 and older provided informed consent, with youth respondents ages 12 to 17 providing assent and each youth’s parent/legal guardian providing consent.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data from the PATH Study Wave 1 to Wave 3 may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available ( Applications instructions and conditions of use are available at the website above.

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