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Crowding-out effect of tobacco expenditure in Vietnam
  1. Ngoc-Minh Nguyen,
  2. Anh Nguyen
  1. Economics, Development and Policies Research Center (DEPOCEN), Hanoi, Viet Nam
  1. Correspondence to Dr Anh Nguyen, Economics, Development and Policies Research Center, Hanoi, Viet Nam; anhnguyen{at}


Purpose This study aims at analysing the causal crowding-out effect of tobacco spending on intrahousehold budget share in Vietnam. Besides, we also examine the differences in expenditure patterns between tobacco spending households and non-spending households in Vietnam as well as determine the reason behind these differences.

Methods We estimated a system of quadratic conditional Engel curve to determine intrahousehold resource allocation using the latest Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey data in 2016. In order to estimate the causal crowding-out effect of tobacco spending, GMM 3SLS method is used to simultaneously deal with heteroscedasticity and endogeneity problems.

Results Although the Wald test results propose the difference in preferences between tobacco spending and non-spending households in Vietnam, once controlling for household characteristics, the results from GMM 3SLS method show that the differences are insignificant. Generally, the crowding-out effect of tobacco spending in Vietnamese households is modest because of the small share of tobacco in the total household expenditure. An increase in tobacco expenditure only leads to a fall in the budget shares of education. The crowding-out effect, however, mainly appears in the case of low-income households.

Conclusions The reduction in education caused by tobacco consumption, particularly in low-income households, may extend inequality and thus prevent the socioeconomic development in Vietnam in the long term. Additionally, the tiny share of tobacco in household expenditure reveals that the price of tobacco products in Vietnam is extremely low, leading to high proportion of tobacco smokers. Government, therefore, should continuously increase the tobacco tax so that it could restrict the tobacco affordability.

  • tobacco expenditure
  • crowding out

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  • Presented at Previous version of the paper was presented at Tobacconomics Session, 12th Vietnam Economist Annual Meeting (VEAM 2019) at Da Lat University.

  • Contributors AN is responsible for the entire project, designed the study, reviewed an earlier draft and finalised the manuscript. N-MN is responsible for empirical analysis and wrote an earlier draft of the manuscript.

  • Funding The project is financially supported by the University of Illinois at Chicago’s Institute for Health Research and Policy through its partnership with the Bloomberg Philanthropies.

  • Disclaimer The usual disclaimer applies.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available on reasonable request. Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available.

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