Background Monitoring tobacco control policy implementation is one of the keys for tobacco consumption reduction in Latin America (LA). This study reports on the adaptation of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) for use in LA countries and the level of tobacco control policy implementation in this region according to the scale.
Methods Ecological cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire to measure tobacco control policies was a translated (into Spanish and Portuguese) and adapted version of the last TCS as used in Europe. The resulting TCS-LA maintains the same structure as the original TCS, with eight policy domains and 100 points (pts) as maximum score; however, four policy domains were adapted because the exact same rationale could not be applied. At least two non-governmental tobacco control experts were contacted per country to answer the TCS-LA.
Results Informants from 17 out of 18 countries completed the questionnaire. Using the TCS-LA, Panama (70 pts), Uruguay (68 pts) and Ecuador (61 pts) exhibited the strongest tobacco control policies, while Guatemala (32 pts), Bolivia (30 pts) and Dominican Republic (29 pts) have implemented a lower number of tobacco control policies. Eight countries reached 50% of the TCS-LA total possible score, indicating a relatively good implementation level of tobacco control policies.
Conclusions Panama, Uruguay and Ecuador are the tobacco control policy leaders in LA; however, tobacco control in the region has room for improvement since nine countries have a total score under 50 pts. The TCS is a feasible and adaptable tool to monitor tobacco control in other WHO regions beyond Europe.
- public policy
- surveillance and monitoring
- global health
Data availability statement
Data are available upon reasonable request. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.
Twitter @AriadnaFeliu, @CrisMarMar, @JoossensLuk, @stvfdz
Contributors Conceptualisation and design of the study: AF, AP, CM and EF. Adaptation of the TCS to LA (rationale): AF, AP, CM, EB, EF and LJ. Translation of the questionnaire: AF and SON, with the contextual language validation of AP, EB and MC. Allocation of the scores: AF, CM and EF. Visualisation: AF. Data curation: AP, EB, EF and LJ. Drafted the manuscript: AF. Critically revised the manuscript: all authors. Approved the final manuscript version: all authors. Guarantors: EF and CM, and both are considered senior authors.
Funding The Tobacco Control Research Group is partly supported by the Ministry of Business and Knowledge from the Government of Catalonia (2017SGR319) and by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Government of Spain (CIBERES CB19/06/00004). SON has received funding from the European Union's 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie (grant agreement number 7136730). SON has received financial support through the ‘La Caixa’ INPHINIT Fellowship Grant for Doctoral Studies at Spanish Research Centres of Excellence, ‘La Caixa’ Banking Foundation, Barcelona, Spain (LCF/BQ/DI17/11620022).
Map disclaimer The depiction of boundaries on this map does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of BMJ (or any member of its group) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, jurisdiction or area or of its authorities. This map is provided without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.