This article concerns the adoption of domestic tobacco-control legislation in Ecuador after ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). While the FCTC helped raise awareness about tobacco’s imminent and future threats to public health, paradoxically, it had the effect of further entrenching tobacco-friendly norms. Philip Morris, with an 87% dominance over the Ecuadorian tobacco market, subtly harnessed the FCTC to protect its interests. This outcome was also influenced by poor governmental readiness and intervention, lack of legislative technical capabilities, and weak civil society involvement. The Ecuadorian experience suggests that more support should be provided to health ministries, legislatures, and local tobacco-control organizations to offset the power of the tobacco industry as developing nations get ready to adopt domestic tobacco-control legislation.
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