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Smoking estimates from around the world: Data from the first 17 participating countries in the World Mental Health Survey Consortium
  1. Carla L Storr1,*,
  2. Hui Cheng2,
  3. Jordi Alonso3,
  4. Matthias Angermeyer4,
  5. Ronny Bruffaerts5,
  6. Giovanni de Girolamo6,
  7. Ron de Graaf7,
  8. Oye Gureje8,
  9. Elie G Karam9,
  10. Stanislav Kostyuchenko10,
  11. Sing Lee11,
  12. Jean-Pierre Lepine12,
  13. Maria Elena Medina Mora13,
  14. Landon Myer14,
  15. Yehuda Neumark15,
  16. Jose Posada-Villa16,
  17. Makoto Watanabe17,
  18. J Elisabeth Wells18,
  19. Ronald C Kessler19,
  20. James C Anthony2
  1. 1 University of Maryland, School of Nursing, United States;
  2. 2 Michigan State University, United States;
  3. 3 Institut Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica (IMIM-Hospital del Mar),, Spain;
  4. 4 Gösing am Wagram, Australia;
  5. 5 University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Belgium;
  6. 6 Health Care Research Agency, Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy;
  7. 7 Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Netherlands;
  8. 8 University College Hospital, Nigeria;
  9. 9 Balamand University School of Medicine, Lebanon;
  10. 10 Ukrainian Psychiatric Association, Ukraine;
  11. 11 The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China;
  12. 12 Hospital Ferdinand Widal, France;
  13. 13 National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico;
  14. 14 University of Cape Town, South Africa;
  15. 15 Hebrew University-Hadassah, Israel;
  16. 16 Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca University, Colombia;
  17. 17 National Cardiovascular Center, Japan;
  18. 18 Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Science, New Zealand;
  19. 19 Harvard Medical School, United States
  1. Correspondence to: Carla Storr, Family and Community Health, University of Maryland, 655 West Lombard Street #655A, Baltimore, 21201, United States; cstor002{at}


Objective: To contribute new multi-national findings on basic descriptive features of smoking and cessation, based upon standardized community surveys of adults residing in seven low and middle income countries and 10 higher income countries from all regions of the world.

Methods: Data were collected using standardized interviews and community probability sample survey methods conducted as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS) Initiative. Demographic and socioeconomic correlates of smoking are studied using cross tabulation and logistic regression approaches. Within-country sample weights were applied with variance estimation appropriate for complex sample survey designs.

Results: Estimated prevalence of smoking experience (history of ever smoking) and current smoking varied across the countries under study. In all but four countries, one out of every four adults currently smoked. In higher income countries, estimated proportions of former smokers (those who had quit) were roughly double the corresponding estimates for most low and middle income countries. Characteristics of smokers varied within individual countries, and in relation to the World Bank's low-medium-high gradient of economic development. In stark contrast to a sturdy male-female difference in the uptake of smoking seen in each country, there is no consistent sex-associated pattern in the odds of remaining a smoker (versus quitting).

Conclusion: The WMHS estimates complement existing global tobacco monitoring efforts. The observed global diversity of associations with smoking and smoking cessation underscore reasons for implementation of the FCTC provisions and prompt local adaptation of prevention and control interventions.

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