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A call to include people with mental illness and substance use disorders alongside ‘regular’ smokers in smoking cessation research
  1. Anna Lembke1,
  2. Keith Humphreys1,2
  1. 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
  2. 2Center for Innovation to Implementation, VA Palo Alto Health Care System
  1. Correspondence to Professor Keith Humphreys, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 N Quarry Road (MC: 5717), Stanford, CA 94305, USA; knh{at}


This commentary points out that smoking is increasingly concentrated among people with psychiatric problems and other substance use disorders (eg, alcohol use disorder), and argues that for clinical, ethical and efficiency reasons, such individuals should be routinely enrolled in smoking cessation research.

  • Co-substance use
  • Priority/special populations
  • Disparities

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