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Electronic cigarettes in Italy: a tool for harm reduction or a gateway to smoking tobacco?
  1. Xiaoqiu Liu1,
  2. Alessandra Lugo1,
  3. Enrico Davoli1,
  4. Giuseppe Gorini2,
  5. Roberta Pacifici3,
  6. Esteve Fernández4,
  7. Silvano Gallus1
  1. 1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milano, Italy
  2. 2Oncological Network, Prevention and Research Institute (ISPRO), Florence, Italy
  3. 3National Centre on Addiction and Doping, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy
  4. 4Institut Català d’Oncologia (ICO)-Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL), School of Medicine, Universitat de Barcelona, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
  1. Correspondence to Dr Silvano Gallus, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS , Milano 20156, Italy; silvano.gallus{at}marionegri.it

Footnotes

  • Contributors SG had the original idea for the study; RP provided the survey data; XL, AL, SG and RP gave substantial contribution to conception and design of data; AL and XL conducted the data analysis; XL and SG drafted the manuscript; all authors provided substantial contribution to the interpretation of data and critically revised the manuscript; all authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

  • Funding The surveys were conducted with the contribution of the Italian Ministry of Health. The work of AL was supported by a fellowship from the Italian Association for Cancer Research (AIRC). The work of SG and XL was partially supported by the Italian League Against Cancer (Milan). EF is supported by the Ministry of Universities and Research, Government of Catalonia (2017SGR319), and the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Government of Spain (INT16/00211 and INT17/00103), cofunded by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER). This study was partially supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 project TackSHS under grant agreement no. 681040.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval The Ethics Committee of Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta–Milano acknowledged the collection of anonymous data in face-to-face population-based, observational, cross-sectional studies (File number 37, 2017).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors SG had the original idea for the study; RP provided the survey data; XL, AL, SG and RP gave substantial contribution to conception and design of data; AL and XL conducted the data analysis; XL and SG drafted the manuscript; all authors provided substantial contribution to the interpretation of data and critically revised the manuscript; all authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

  • Funding The surveys were conducted with the contribution of the Italian Ministry of Health. The work of AL was supported by a fellowship from the Italian Association for Cancer Research (AIRC). The work of SG and XL was partially supported by the Italian League Against Cancer (Milan). EF is supported by the Ministry of Universities and Research, Government of Catalonia (2017SGR319), and the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Government of Spain (INT16/00211 and INT17/00103), cofunded by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER). This study was partially supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 project TackSHS under grant agreement no. 681040.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval The Ethics Committee of Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta–Milano acknowledged the collection of anonymous data in face-to-face population-based, observational, cross-sectional studies (File number 37, 2017).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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