Objective This study examined sexual orientation differences in encoded exposure to tobacco product ads and intersections with race and ethnicity.
Methods We analysed data from young adults (18–24) from the US Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study in 2013 and 2014 (N=9110). First, we compared encoded exposure to cigarette, electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), cigar and smokeless tobacco ads between sexual minorities (lesbian/gay, bisexual and something else) versus heterosexual young adults. We then analysed encoded ad exposure across sexual orientation, racial and ethnic subgroups. Analyses controlled for demographic and tobacco use variables.
Results Bisexual women had significantly higher prevalence of encoded exposure to cigarette and cigar ads compared with heterosexual women, and significantly higher prevalence of encoded e-cigarette ad exposure compared with both heterosexual and lesbian/gay women. There were no significant differences in encoded ad exposure between lesbian versus heterosexual women and between gay or bisexual men versus heterosexual men. Compared with heterosexual white counterparts, increased encoded ad exposures were reported by heterosexual black women (cigarette and cigar ads), black heterosexual men (cigar ads) and bisexual black women (cigarette and cigar ads). Compared with heterosexual non- Hispanic counterparts, increased encoded ad exposures were reported by bisexual Hispanic women (cigarette, e-cigarette and cigar ads) and heterosexual Hispanic men (cigarettes and cigar ads).
Conclusion Sexual minority women of colour and black heterosexual women and men have increased encoded exposure to certain forms of tobacco ads. Further research is needed to address the impact of tobacco ads among multiple minority individuals based on sex, sexual orientation, race and ethnicity.
- priority/special populations
- advertising and promotion
- non-cigarette tobacco products
- electronic nicotine delivery devices
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Contributors All authors contributed to the conceptualisation of the study. ASLT conducted the data analyses and was responsible for the overall content as guarantor. ASLT and EPH led the initial drafting of the paper. All authors contributed to the writing, and reviewed and approved the final manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval Ethics review for the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study was obtained by Westat. The current analysis was reviewed and determined to be exempt by our university’s institutional review board.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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