Background Few studies assess whether electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) device characteristics or flavours impact longitudinal patterns of cigarette and e-cigarette use.
Design We examined data from waves 2–4 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2014–2018). Among adult (≥18 years) current e-cigarette users at wave 2 who were current smokers (dual users; n=1759) and former smokers (exclusive e-cigarette users; n=470), we classified participants into four use patterns at wave 3 (~12 months later) and wave 4 (~24 months later): (1) dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes; (2) exclusive cigarette smoking; (3) exclusive e-cigarette use; (4) non-use of both products. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess correlates of changing use patterns at 24 months, relative to no change, adjusting for sociodemographic factors.
Results At 24 months, 26.5% of baseline exclusive e-cigarette users, and 9% of baseline dual users, abstained from both vaping and smoking. Participants who vaped non-tobacco flavours (vs tobacco flavours), and used refillable tank or modifiable devices (vs disposable, cartridges and other devices) were less likely to transition to non-use of both products and to exclusive cigarette smoking. Baseline daily vaping (vs non-daily) was positively associated with exclusive e-cigarette use at 24 months for baseline daily cigarette smokers, but negatively associated with exclusive e-cigarette use and non-use of both products at 24 months for baseline non-daily smokers.
Conclusions Non-tobacco flavours, daily vaping and modifiable e-cigarette devices may help some smokers abstain from cigarette smoking via transitioning to exclusive e-cigarette use, but are also associated with ongoing exclusive e-cigarette use.
- electronic nicotine delivery devices
- non-cigarette tobacco products
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