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Contributors DH developed the research questions. KAE led the analysis, with input from JLR and DH. All authors jointly led the write-up and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Funding The 2019 Canadian Tobacco and Nicotine Survey and the 2017 Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey were funded by Health Canada.
Competing interests DH has served as a paid expert witness in legal challenges against tobacco and vaping companies.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.