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Smoking and vaping among Canadian youth and adults in 2017 and 2019

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  • Contributors DH developed the research questions. KAE led the analysis, with input from JLR and DH. All authors jointly led the write-up and approved the final version of the manuscript.

  • Funding The 2019 Canadian Tobacco and Nicotine Survey and the 2017 Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey were funded by Health Canada.

  • Competing interests DH has served as a paid expert witness in legal challenges against tobacco and vaping companies.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.