Background The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to have a single addiction warning, but many other health harms are associated with vaping and warnings grow stale over time. We aimed to develop new warning messages and images to discourage e-cigarette use.
Methods Participants were 1629 US adults who vaped or smoked. We randomised each participant to evaluate 7 of 28 messages on newly developed warning themes (metals exposure, DNA mutation, cardiovascular problems, chemical exposure, lung damage, impaired immunity, addiction), and the current FDA-required warning (total of 8 messages). Then, participants evaluated images of hazards (eg, metal), internal harms (eg, organ damage) or people experiencing harms.
Results Regarding intended effects, new warning themes all discouraged vaping more than the current FDA-required warning (all p<0.001), led to greater negative affect (all p<0.001) and led to more anticipated social interactions (all p<0.001). The most discouraging warnings were about toxic metals exposure. Regarding unintended effects, the new themes led to more stigma against people who vape (6 of 7 themes, p<0.001) and led to a greater likelihood of thinking vaping is more harmful than smoking (all 7 themes, p<0.001), although unintended effects were smaller than intended effects. Images of harms (internal or people experiencing) discouraged vaping more than images of hazards (all p<0.001).
Discussion Vaping warning policies should communicate a broader range of hazards and harms, beyond addiction, to potentially increase awareness of health harms. Images of internal harm or people experiencing harms may be particularly effective at discouraging vaping.
- packaging and labelling
- electronic nicotine delivery devices
Data availability statement
Data are available on reasonable request.
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Contributors Conceptualisation: AJL, SN, MGH, KMR, JMS, CW, NTB. Methodology: AJL, SN, MGH, KM, JMS, CW, NB. Formal analysis: AJL, MEK, TLQ. Investigation: JMS, NTB. Writing—original draft: AJL, MEK, SN, NTB. Writing—review and editing: AJL, MEK, SN, MGH, KMR, JMS, CW, TLQ, NTB. Visualisation: AJL, SN, JMS. Supervision: NTB. Project administration: JMS. Guarantor: AJL.
Funding Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01DA048390. K01HL147713 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health supported Marissa Hall’s time working on the paper.
Competing interests KMR is a paid expert scientist in litigation against e-cigarette and tobacco companies.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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