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Foregrounding women and household dynamics to inform Article 17: a qualitative description analysis of tobacco farming households in Mozambique
  1. Madelyn Clark1,
  2. Benedito Cunguara2,
  3. Stella Bialous3,
  4. Kathleen Rice4,
  5. Jeffrey Drope5,
  6. Ronald Labonte6,
  7. Raphael Lencucha7
  1. 1Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
  2. 2Gabinete de Desenvolvimento do Compacto II, Ministry of Economy and Finance, Maputo, Mozambique
  3. 3School of Nursing and Center for Tobacco Control, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
  4. 4Department of Family Medicine, McGill University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Montreal, Québec, Canada
  5. 5School of Public Health, University of Illinois Chicago School of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  6. 6School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  7. 7School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Raphael Lencucha, School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y5, Canada; raphael.lencucha{at}


Purpose This paper examines the intrahousehold dynamics between women and men present in tobacco farming households in Mozambique. Attention to the experiences and realities of the smallholder farmers is crucial for understanding approaches to alternative livelihoods. Intrahousehold dynamics can provide important insights into how these households and their members view tobacco production and engage with the political economy of tobacco farming, how they make decisions, and the rationale and values behind these decisions.

Methods Data were collected through single-gender focus group discussions (n=8) with 108 participants (men=57, women=51). Analysis was informed by a qualitative description methodology. This research presents a gender-based analysis examining the perspectives, roles, decision-making processes and desires of female and male tobacco farmers in four key tobacco-growing districts in Mozambique.

Findings Throughout this paper, women are found to hold leverage and influence in tobacco farming households, and this leverage is in part gained via the necessity of women’s unpaid labour in achieving profitability in tobacco farming. Both women and men are also found to strongly desire and pursue the well-being of the household.

Conclusion Women hold agency within tobacco-growing households and participate in decision-making processes regarding tobacco agriculture. Women should be included in future tobacco control policies and programmes pertaining to Article 17.

  • global health
  • low/middle income country
  • public policy

Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request.

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  • Contributors MC and RLen designed the study. MC and RLen developed the gender-oriented questions for the focus group interview guide in consultation with the team. BC facilitated the data collection. MC completed the data analysis in consultation with RLen. MC and RLen developed the first draft of the paper. BC, SB, KR, JD, RLen and RLab contributed to drafts of the manuscript. MC, RLen and SB completed the revisions. All authors approved the final version of the paper. RLen acts as a guarantor.

  • Funding This study was funded by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant number: PJT166086).

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.