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Foregrounding women and household dynamics to inform Article 17: a qualitative description analysis of tobacco farming households in Mozambique


Purpose This paper examines the intrahousehold dynamics between women and men present in tobacco farming households in Mozambique. Attention to the experiences and realities of the smallholder farmers is crucial for understanding approaches to alternative livelihoods. Intrahousehold dynamics can provide important insights into how these households and their members view tobacco production and engage with the political economy of tobacco farming, how they make decisions, and the rationale and values behind these decisions.

Methods Data were collected through single-gender focus group discussions (n=8) with 108 participants (men=57, women=51). Analysis was informed by a qualitative description methodology. This research presents a gender-based analysis examining the perspectives, roles, decision-making processes and desires of female and male tobacco farmers in four key tobacco-growing districts in Mozambique.

Findings Throughout this paper, women are found to hold leverage and influence in tobacco farming households, and this leverage is in part gained via the necessity of women’s unpaid labour in achieving profitability in tobacco farming. Both women and men are also found to strongly desire and pursue the well-being of the household.

Conclusion Women hold agency within tobacco-growing households and participate in decision-making processes regarding tobacco agriculture. Women should be included in future tobacco control policies and programmes pertaining to Article 17.

  • global health
  • low/middle income country
  • public policy

Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request.

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