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Pilot randomised controlled trial of a culturally aligned smoking cessation app for American Indian persons

Abstract

Objective To pilot test QuitGuide for Natives, a culturally aligned version of the National Cancer Institute’s QuitGuide smartphone app for smoking cessation.

Methods This randomised controlled trial was conducted remotely during 2022–2023. American Indian adults who smoked and resided in the Midwest (n=115) were randomised to QuitGuide for Natives or the general audience QuitGuide smartphone-based intervention. Group differences in feasibility (times the app was initiated), usability, acceptability (‘How likely would you be to recommend the app to a friend?’), fit of app with culture and preliminary efficacy (24-hour quit attempts, cotinine-confirmed self-reported 7-day abstinence) outcomes were examined.

Results QuitGuide for Natives versus the general audience QuitGuide did not differ in the number of times the app was opened (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.94 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.40); p=0.743) nor in usability score (adjusted mean difference (aMD) 0.73 (95% CI: −5.00 to 6.46); p=0.801) or likeliness of recommending the app to a friend (aMD 0.62 (95% CI −0.02 to 1.27); p=0.058). Differences were observed for all cultural fit outcomes such as ‘The app fits my American Indian culture (aMD 0.75 (95% CI 0.35 to 1.16); p<0.001). QuitGuide for Natives versus the general audience QuitGuide resulted in an average of 6.6 vs 5.1 24-hour quit attempts (p=0.349) and cotinine-confirmed 7-day abstinence was achieved by 6.9% vs 3.5% (p=0.679).

Conclusions Acceptability, cultural fit and preliminary efficacy findings are encouraging and will inform future, larger-scale evaluation of culturally aligned digital smoking cessation resources for American Indian adults.

  • Cessation
  • Addiction
  • Nicotine

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