Table 2

Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) in New Zealand

Date Population Definition of exposure Prevalence of exposure to SHS Reference
1986Adult non-smokers 35–64 yearsExposed to SHS in their homes 12.7% (men)Kawachi et al7
16.1% (women)
1987-8Adults, 35–64 years, never smokersExposed to SHS at work33.6% (men)Kawachi et al 7
23.4% (women)
1991Indoor workersExposed to SHS during working hours19% Public Health Commission31
Exposed during tea and lunch breaks39%
1991-3Infants, at 2 month visitMother smokes22.8%Mitchell et al14
Father smokes27.7%
1993Adult non-smokers, sample of multi-industry workforceRegular exposure to SHS at work or at home49% (men)Whitlock et al27
33% (women)
43% (European)
60% (Maori)
56% (Pacific Islands)
1996Adults exposed to SHSMean number of hours per day exposed to others smoke3.7 hours (at work) Ministry of Health 9
3.4 horrs (away from work)
3.7/3.1 (European or other ethnicity)
3.7/4.4 (Maori)
1996Adult non-smokersLive with someone who regularly smokes around them inside the home 14.7% (men)Ministry of Health9
16.5% (women)
1996Indoor workers (non-smokers)Exposed to SHS during working hours19.1% (men)Ministry of Health9
6.2% (women)
Exposed only during tea and lunch breaks24.0% (men and women)
1997Secondary school children aged 14–15Exposed to smoke at home35% (all students)ASH survey of secondary school students. Unpublished report
54% (Maori)
1997Infants visited by child health nurses at 3 monthsMother smoked during pregnancy26% (all mothers)Tuohy P, et al, 1997. SIDS risk factor final report.2-150
49% (Maori mothers)
  • 2-150 Unpublished report to the Ministry of Health.

  • ASH, Action on Smoking and Health; SIDS, sudden infant death syndrome.