Table 1

Timeline of ASHRAE Standard 62: ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality

StandardYearActivityNotesTobacco industry actions
ANSI, American National Standards Institute; ASHRAE; American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers; BOCA, Building and Official Code Administrators; EPA, Environmental Protection Agency; TC, technical committee.
62-19731970sRevisedRevised because it established minimum and recommended levels for indoor ventilation, in conflict with energy conservation standards (90-1975) which mandated adoption of minimum rates only
62-19811981Revision finishedDetermined ventilation rates based on whether or not smoking was allowed; ventilation rates 2–5 times higher for areas where smoking is permitted (at least doubling the cost for heating and cooling)The beginning of tobacco industry involvement with ASHRAE
1981ApprovalStandard approved by ASHRAE
1983Submitted to ANSIANSI does not approve the standard because it considers it “controversial”The Tobacco Institute (and the Formaldehyde Institute) opposed the standard
1983Submitted to BOCABOCA does not adopt the standardPhilip Morris convinced BOCA to reject 62-1981. Industry starts using the argument that “to single out” tobacco smoke as a source of indoor air pollution is inaccurate, unfair and not scientifically sound
62-1981R1983ASHRAE revision of Standard 62-1981 begins
1985Northeastern University law professor and tobacco control advocate Richard Daynard requests that scientific information regarding the health effects of second hand smoke be considered by the 62-committee. Daynard questions the involvement of the Tobacco Institute in the process. Committee chair expresses reluctance in create conflict with the tobacco industry
62-1981R1988Ready for public reviewVentilation rates increased from 5 cfm to 15 cfm; 20 cfm for offices, and 60 cfm for smoking lounges. No two tier approach—that is, no different ventilation rates based on whether or not smoking is permitted. It assumes a “moderate amount of smoking” for most building areas. Daynard appeals the Standards Committee (appeal denied)
62-19891989Approved by ASHRAEDaynard appeals decision to publish the standard (appeal denied). Approved by the ASHRAE Board of Directors as Standard 62-1989
1990ANSI’s approvalANSI approves 62-1989 as an American standard. Daynard appeals the decision. The appeal is sustainedThe Tobacco Institute denies having influenced the committee
1991ANSI’s reversalASHRAE appeals ANSI’s decision favourable to Daynard, and wins. ANSI’s board of standards review approves 62-1989
Endorsement62-1989 is endorsed by the Southern Regional Standards Association, making it more likely to be incorporated into building codes
62-1989R1991RevisionA committee is created to revise standard 62-1989. Gene Tucker, from EPA, is appointed to chair the committee. He indicates that it will focus on source control and secondhand smoke
1995Change in chairTucker’s term as chair expires (but he stays as non-voting member), Steve Taylor is new committee chair.Congressional investigation of EPA and its relationship with ASHRAE
Review by TC9.1The technical committee, which members includes industry consultants, opposes the release of the standard draft for public review
1996Ready for public reviewVentilation rates prescribed assume non-smoking. Different recommendations if smoking is permitted
1997WithdrawalStandard is not approved, but rather placed under continuous maintenance by the ASHRAE board of directors. The proposed standard is withdrawnPhilip Morris lobbied the board of directors. It considered it a victory to have the standard placed in continuous maintenance
1998New draft for reviewA new draft of the standard is submitted to public review. It includes addendum 62e, removing moderate amount of smoking allowance from the ventilation rates prescribedThe industry mounts a major campaign to submit comments opposing addendum 62e. It appeals and loses; the ASHRAE board approves the addendum
62-19991999PublicationStandard published. With addendum 62e that establishes that the standard ventilation rates are for non-smoking areas only, with the exception of bars, casinos and cocktail loungesThe industry opposes the inclusion of the addendum and appealed ANSI. It loses the appeal at all levels
2000ApprovalANSI approval of standardThe industry is campaigning to have a separate standard, allowing for smoking, for the hospitality industry