Table 1

Social exchange, parent influences, and teen norms scales

A. Social exchange scale (Cronbach α=0.86)
Social provision subscale
Ever given tobacco to teens (no, yes>year ago, yes<year ago, yes past month)
Ever given tobacco to sibling (y/n)
Ever given tobacco to same age friend or acquaintance (y/n)
Ever given tobacco to younger friend or acquaintance (y/n)
Ever given tobacco to stranger (y/n)
Number of teens given tobacco to, past month (1, 2–5, 6–10, >10)
Frequency provide tobacco to teens (<once/week, once/week, few times/week, every day)
Ever sold tobacco to another teen (no, last 30 days, last year, >year ago)
Social acquisition subscale
Got first cigarette from a friend (y/n) (not included in combined social exchange scale)
Got most recent cigarette from a friend (y/n)
Ever gotten cigarettes from a sibling (y/n)
Ever gotten cigarettes from another teen (y/n)
Ever gotten cigarettes from parent (y/n)
Ever gotten cigarettes from another adult (y/n)
Ever gotten cigarettes by stealing from somewhere else (other than a business) (y/n)
Number of teens gotten cigarettes from, past month (1, 2–5, 6–10, >10)
Ever bought cigarettes from another teen (no, last 30 days, last year, >year ago)
B. Parent influences scale (Cronbach α=0.90)
Father smokes (y/n)
Mother smokes (y/n)
Respondent smoked in own home, past 30 days (y/n)
Noticed adults smoking in my home, past 30 days (never, occasionally, often)
Noticed adults smoking in someone else’s home, past 30 days (never, occasionally, often)
Noticed teens smoking in my home, past 30 days (never, occasionally, often)
Parents did nothing if caught smoking (y/n)
Frequency parent smokes in house (never, sometimes, often)
Frequency parent smokes outside (never, sometimes, often)
Frequency parent smokes in car (never, sometimes, often)
Parent allows respondent to smoke in house (y/n)
Parent allows other teens to smoke in house (y/n)
Parent allows adult family members to smoke in house (y/n)
Parent allows adult guests to smoke in house (y/n)
Parent allows respondent to smoke in car (y/n)
Parent allows other teens to smoke in car (y/n)
Parent allows adult family members to smoke in car (y/n)
Parent allows adult guests to smoke in car (y/n)
C. Teen norms scale (Cronbach α=0.96)
“Do most people in your community think it is ok for teens to smoke in these places?”
(1–7 scale, where 1=most people think it’s ok and 7=most people think it’s not ok)
In respondent’s home
At another person’s home
In school
On school property
Near school property
In a car with other young people
At work
At a fast food restaurant
At another type of restaurant
In a shopping centre
In a recreation centre
In outdoors gathering places