Table 2

Association between Tobacco Institute state and local lobbying expenditures for 1991-97 and indicators of tobacco control activity

Indicators of tobacco control activitySpearman rank correlation coefficients between the average TI/SAD lobbying expenditures and indicators of tobacco control at the state level*
Cigarette tax rate in 1997 0.28, p=0.05
Difference in tax rate between 1991 and 1997 0.10, p=0.49
Per cent employed in a smoke-free workplace in 1995/96 0.24, p=0.10
Change in smoke-free air laws in private/gov't work sites and restaurants, 1991-1997 0.08, p=0.60
Change in score, sales to minors laws 1993 and 1996−0.01, p=0.96
Change in youth possession, purchase and use laws, 1991-97 0.31, p=0.03
SOTC composite index 0.37, p=0.01
Results of Mann-Whitney U test comparing average rank of states on TI/SAD lobbying expenditures by selected characteristics†
*Positive Spearman rank correlation coefficients indicate more TI/SAD lobbying expenditures as tobacco control indicators increase (for example, higher taxes in 1997 is associated with higher TI spending).
†Ranks of TI/SAD lobbying expenditures are sorted in ascending order such that the higher rank average score indicates greater TI/SAD lobbying expenditures compared to the lower score (for example, more TI spending in ASSIST compared to non-ASSIST states).
‡Data for partisan control of state government in 1996 compared with TI/SAD state lobbying expenditures for 1996 only.
p Values are based on two sided statistical tests. Tobacco control measures showing significant association at the 10% level or higher are in bold type.
ASSIST, American Stop Smoking Intervention Study; SAD, State Activities Division; SOTC, strength of tobacco control; TI, Tobacco Institute.
ASSIST funded (n=17) v non-ASSIST funded (n=33) 31.7 v 22.3 p=0.03
Tax initiative state (n=4) v non-initiative state (n=46) 37.5 v 24.5 p=0.09
Major tobacco grower status (n=6) v minor/non-grower states (n=44)21.7 v 26.0 p=0.49
Republican (n=26) v Democrat (n=24) control of state government‡25.9 v 25.1 p=0.85